Thursday, 22 October 2015

Allodynia & Hyperalgesia WHAT ?!?

SpoonieLife
Allodynia & Hyperalgesia (painful skin conditions)
Allodynia refers to central pain sensitization (increased response of neurons) following painful, often repetitive, stimulation. Allodynia can lead to the triggering of a pain response from stimuli which do not normally provoke pain.
Temperature or physical stimuli can provoke allodynia, which may feel like a burning sensation, and it often occurs after injury to a site.
Allodynia is different from hyperalgesia, an extreme, exaggerated reaction to a stimulus which is normally painful.

Types
There are different kinds or types of allodynia:
  • Mechanical allodynia (also known as tactile allodynia)
    • Static mechanical allodynia – pain in response to light touch/pressure[3]
    • Dynamic mechanical allodynia – pain in response to stroking lightly[4]
  • Thermal (hot or cold) allodynia – pain from normally mild skin temperatures in the affected area
  • Movement allodynia - pain triggered by normal movement of joints or muscles

Causes

Allodynia is a clinical feature of many painful conditions, such as neuropathies, complex regional pain syndrome, postherpetic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, and migraine. Allodynia may also be caused by some populations of stem cells used to treat nerve damage including spinal cord injury. Static mechanical allodynia is a paradoxical painful hypoaesthesia, one etiology of which is lesions of A-beta fibres

Pathophysiology

Cellular level

The cell types involved in nociception and mechanical sensation are the cells responsible for allodynia. In healthy individuals, nociceptors sense information about cell stress or damage and temperature at the skin and transmit it to the spinal cord. The cell bodies of these neurons lie in dorsal root ganglia, important structures located on both sides of the spinal cord.
The axons then pass through the dorsal horn to make connections with secondary neurons. The secondary neurons cross over to the other (contralateral) side of the spinal cord and reach nuclei of the thalamus. From there, the information is carried through one or more neurons to the somatosensory cortex of the brain.
Mechanoreceptors follow the same general pathway. However, they do not cross over at the level of the spinal cord, but at the lower medulla instead. In addition, they are grouped in tracts that are spatially distinct from the nociceptive tracts.
Despite this anatomical separation, mechanoreceptors can influence the output of nociceptors by making connections with the same interneurons, the activation of which can reduce or completely eliminate the sensation of pain.
Another way to modulate the transmission of pain information is via descending fibers from the brain. These fibers act through different interneurons to block the transmission of information from the nociceptors to secondary neurons.[9]
Both of these mechanisms for pain modulation have been implicated in the pathology of allodynia. Several studies suggest that injury to the spinal cord might lead to loss and re-organization of the nociceptors, mechanoreceptors and interneurons, leading to the transmission of pain information by mechanoreceptors.
A different study reports the appearance of descending fibers at the injury site.[12] All of these changes ultimately affect the circuitry inside the spinal cord, and the altered balance of signals probably leads to the intense sensation of pain associated with allodynia.
Different cell types have also been linked to allodynia. For example, there are reports that microglia in the thalamus might contribute to allodynia by changing the properties of the secondary nociceptors.
The same effect is achieved in the spinal cord by the recruitment of immune system cells such as monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes.

 

Molecular level[edit]

There is a strong body of evidence that the so-called sensitization of the central nervous system contributes to the appearance of allodynia. Sensitization refers to the increased response of neurons following repetitive stimulation. In addition to repeated activity, the increased levels of certain compounds lead to sensitization, as well.
The work of many researchers has led to the elucidation of pathways that can result in neuronal sensitization both in the thalamus and dorsal horns. Both pathways depend on the production of chemokines and other molecules important in the inflammatory response.
A very important molecule in the thalamus appears to be cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21). The concentration of this chemokine is increased in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus where secondary nociceptive neurons make connections with other neurons. The source of CCL21 is not exactly known, but two possibilities exist. First, it might be made in primary nociceptive neurons and transported up to the thalamus.
Most likely, neurons intrinsic to the ventral posterolateral nucleus make at least some of it.[13] In any case, CCL21 binds to C-C chemokine receptor type 7 and chemokine receptor CXCR3 receptors on microglia in the thalamus.[15] The physiologic response to the binding is probably the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2).[16] Activated microglia making PGE2 can then sensitize nociceptive neurons as manifested by their lowered threshold to pain.[17]
The mechanism responsible for sensitization of the central nervous system at the level of the spinal cord is different from the one in the thalamus. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptor are the molecules that seem to be responsible for the sensitization of neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord. Macrophages and lymphocytes infiltrate the spinal cord, for example, because of injury, and release TNF-alpha and other pro-inflammatory molecules.[18]
TNF-alpha then binds to the TNF receptors expressed on nociceptors, activating the MAPK/NF-kappa B pathways. This leads to the production of more TNF-alpha, its release, and binding to the receptors on the cells that released it (autocrine signalling).[14] This mechanism also explains the perpetuation of sensitization and thus allodynia. TNF-alpha might also increase the number of AMPA receptors, and decrease the numbers of GABA receptors on the membrane of nociceptors, both of which could change the nociceptors in a way that allows for their easier activation.[19] Another outcome of the increased TNF-alpha is the release of PGE2, with a mechanism and effect similar to the ones in the thalamus.[20]

Treatment

Medications

Numerous compounds alleviate the pain from allodynia. Some are specific for certain types of allodynia while others are general. They include:[21]
Dynamic mechanical allodynia - compounds targeting different ion channels; opioids
Static mechanical allodynia - sodium channel blockers, opioids
  • Lidocaine (IV)
  • Alfentanil (IV)
  • Adenosine (IV)
  • Ketamine (IV)
  • Glycine antagonist
  • Venlafaxine
  • Gabapentin (may also be helpful in cold and dynamic allodynias)
Cold allodynia
The list of compounds that can be used to treat allodynia is even longer than this. For example, many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as naproxen, can inhibit COX-1 and/or COX-2, thus preventing the sensitization of the central nervous system. Another effect of naproxen is the reduction of the responsiveness of mechano- and thermoreceptors to stimuli.[22]
Other compounds act on molecules important for the transmission of an action potential from one neuron to another. Examples of these include interfering with receptors for neurotransmitters or the enzymes that remove neurotransmitters not bound to receptors.
Endocannabinoids are molecules that can relieve pain by modulating nociceptive neurons. When anandamide, an endocannabinoid, is released, pain sensation is reduced. Anandamide is later transported back to the neurons releasing it using transporter enzymes on the plasma membrane, eventually disinhibiting pain perception. However, this re-uptake can be blocked by AM404, elongating the duration of pain inhibition.
Hyperalgesia
is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves. Temporary increased sensitivity to pain also occurs as part of sickness behavior, the evolved response to infection.[1]

Types
Hyperalgesia can be experienced in focal, discrete areas, or as a more diffuse, body-wide form. Conditioning studies have established that it is possible to experience a learned hyperalgesia of the latter, diffuse form.
  • The focal form is typically associated with injury, and is divided into two subtypes:
  • Primary hyperalgesia describes pain sensitivity that occurs directly in the damaged tissues.
  • Secondary hyperalgesia describes pain sensitivity that occurs in surrounding undamaged tissues.
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia may develop as a result of long-term opioid use in the treatment of chronic pain.[2] Various studies of humans and animals have demonstrated that primary or secondary hyperalgesia can develop in response to both chronic and acute exposure to opioids. This side effect can be severe enough to warrant discontinuation of opioid treatment.

Causes

Hyperalgesia is induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF) which comes about in an inflammatory or an allergic response. This seems to occur via immune cells interacting with the peripheral nervous system and releasing pain-producing chemicals (cytokines and chemokines).[3]
One unusual cause of focal hyperalgesia is platypus venom.[4]
Long term opioid (e.g. heroin, morphine) users and those on high-dose opioid medications for the treatment of chronic pain, may experience hyperalgesia and experience pain out of proportion to physical findings, which is a common cause for loss of efficacy of these medications over time.[2][5][6]
As it can be difficult to distinguish from tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia is often compensated for by escalating the dose of opioid, potentially worsening the problem by further increasing sensitivity to pain.
Chronic hyperstimulation of opioid receptors results in altered homeostasis of pain signalling pathways in the body with several mechanisms of action involved. One major pathway being through stimulation of the nociceptin receptor,[7][8][9] and blocking this receptor may therefore be a means of preventing the development of hyperalgesia.[10]
Stimulation of nociceptive fibers in a pattern consistent with that from inflammation switches on a form of amplification in the spinal cord, long term potentiation.[11] This occurs where the pain fibres synapse to pain pathway, the periaqueductal grey. Amplification in the spinal cord may be another way of producing hyperalgesia.
The release of proinflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-1 by activated leukocytes triggered by lipopolysaccharides, endotoxins and other signals of infection also increases pain sensitivity as part of sickness behavior, the evolved response to illness.[1][12][13]

Treatment

Hyperalgesia is similar to other sorts of pain associated with nerve irritation or damage such as allodynia and neuropathic pain, and consequently may respond to standard treatment for these conditions, using various drugs such as SSRI or tricyclic antidepressants,[14][15]
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,[16] glucocorticoids,[17] gabapentin[18] or pregabalin,[19] NMDA antagonists,[20][21][22] or atypical opioids such as tramadol.[23] Where hyperalgesia has been produced by chronic high doses of opioids, reducing the dose may result in improved pain management.[24]
However, as with other forms of nerve dysfunction associated pain, treatment of hyperalgesia can be clinically challenging, and finding a suitable drug or drug combination that is effective for a particular patient may require trial and error. The use of a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation device has been shown to alleviate hyperalgesia.
(All information on this page sourced from Wikipedia)

23 comments:

  1. This site is excellent and so is how the subject matter was explained. I also like some of the comments too. Waiting for the next post.
    Hip Replacement Surgery

    ReplyDelete
  2. ALL THANKS TO DR WILLIAMS FOR THE GREAT DEED HE HAVE DONE FOR MY DAUGHTER?
    My daughter suffered from fibromyalgia for more than 12 years which we started experiencing in her when she turned 8 year and 5 months we all thought it will end but got even worse as days went by. We tried all several treatments and therapy prescribed by various doctors we met but to no avail, she always complain of joint stiffness, and have difficulty falling asleep. She usually tells me she feeling tired. This were steady disorder that disrupted her entire life, even at night she slept less because of this.It was during a casual conversation with a friend that i learned about Dr Williams herbal medicine I was able to contact him on his email address. and give him all the necessary information that he needed,few day later he sent me the herbal portion and his medicine was able to restore her back to normal and she is very okay now without any side effects whatsoever. If you have fibromyalgia, do not hesitate to contact him on drwilliams098765@gmail.com for advice and for his product. I hope this also helps someone out there

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. thanks Jessica for such a useful information and a good recommendation with his herb am now also free from fibromyalgia am really so grateful .

      Delete
  3. As a sign of gratitude for how my son was saved from fibromyalgia , i decided to reach out to those still suffering from this.
    My son suffered fibromyalgia in the year 2013 and it was really tough and heartbreaking for me because he was my all and the symptoms were terrible, he always complain of joint stiffness, and he always have difficulty falling asleep . we tried various therapies prescribed by our neurologist but none could cure him. I searched for a cure and i saw a testimony by someone who was cured and so many other with similar body problem, and he left the contact of the doctor who had the cure to fibromyalgia . I never imagined fibromyalgia has a natural cure not until i contacted him and he assured me my son will be fine. I got the herbal medication he recommended and my son used it and in one months time he was fully okay even up till this moment he is so full of life. fibromyalgia has a cure and it is a herbal cure contact the doctor for more info on drwilliams098765@gmail.com on how to get the medication. Thanks for reading my story

    ReplyDelete
  4. WOW ALL THANKS TO DR WILLIAMS I HAVE NEVER BELIEVE IN HERBAL REMEDIES.
    my son have been a patient of fibromyalgia . I had tried a lot of anti viral med prescribed to me by doctors over how many years now but I could not see any improvements in my son symptoms. One day while going through the internet , i got to know about this great Herbal Dr who uses his herbal remedies in curing people from fibromyalgia ,quickly i contacted him and he prepared a herbal medication for my son which i received and he used it as instructed by Dr Williams. After few weeks the improvement were very visible. the chronic muscle pain and the tightness of the joint stopped, I would really recommend this to all my friends,families,around the globe suffering from fibromyalgia. you can contact him through his email on drwilliams098675@gmail.com.for advice and for his product ,his a good man and am very happy giving this testimony.

    ReplyDelete
  5. ALL THANKS TO DR WILLIAMS FOR THE GREAT DEED HE HAVE DONE FOR MY DAUGHTER?
    My daughter suffered from fibromyalgia for more than 12 years which we started experiencing in her when she turned 8 year and 5 months we all thought it will end but got even worse as days went by. We tried all several treatments and therapy prescribed by various doctors we met but to no avail, she always complain of joint stiffness, and have difficulty falling asleep. She usually tells me she feeling tired. This were steady disorder that disrupted her entire life, even at night she slept less because of this.It was during a casual conversation with a friend that i learned about Dr Williams herbal medicine I was able to contact him on his email address. and give him all the necessary information that he needed,few day later he sent me the herbal portion and his medicine was able to restore her back to normal and she is very okay now without any side effects whatsoever. If you have fibromyalgia, do not hesitate to contact him on drwilliams098675@gmail.com for advice and for his product. I hope this also helps someone out there

    ReplyDelete
  6. WOW ALL THANKS TO DR WILLIAMS I HAVE NEVER BELIEVE IN HERBAL REMEDIES.
    my son have been a patient of fibromyalgia . I had tried a lot of anti viral med prescribed to me by doctors over how many years now but I could not see any improvements in my son symptoms. One day while going through the internet , i got to know about this great Herbal Dr who uses his herbal remedies in curing people from fibromyalgia ,quickly i contacted him and he prepared a herbal medication for my son which i received and he used it as instructed by dr williams. After few weeks the improvement were very visible. the chronic muscle pain and the tightness of the joint stopped, I would really recommend this to all my friends,families,around the globe suffering from fibromyalgia.you can contact him through his email on drwilliams098765@gmail.com.for advice and for his product ,his a good man and am very happy to give this testimony.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Dear FRIENDS,
    now i have a beautiful smiling face and so are which you all, after reading my testimony. My name is Nita, I am 31 years old,
    And live with my boyfriend in Belgium, but I am UK. I have been diagnosed with Fibromalgia since 2012, which the Doctors told me this condition was forever. I know how you feel and what you are going through, I don't have a baby though. I just want to tell you that I am cured now,with the help of doctor Williams herbal medication, the last time I can remember having Fibromalgia was October this year. It was a long and difficult process but I am so thankful to dr williams I don't have it anymore. Please know you can be cured too. Accept what happened and is happening to you, forgive, let the past go, love yourself and others unconditionally and be thankful. Everything happens for a reason. If you want to be in contact with dr williams and share your own testimony and thoughts feel free to e-mail him on; drwilliams098675@gmail.com for advice and for his product.

    ReplyDelete
  8. As a sign of gratitude for how my son was saved from fibromyalgia , i decided to reach out to those still suffering from this.
    My son suffered fibromyalgia in the year 2013 and it was really tough and heartbreaking for me because he was my all and the symptoms were terrible, he always complain of joint stiffness, and he always have difficulty falling asleep . we tried various therapies prescribed by our neurologist but none could cure him. I searched for a cure and i saw a testimony by someone who was cured and so many other with similar body problem, and he left the contact of the doctor who had the cure to fibromyalgia . I never imagined fibromyalgia has a natural cure not until i contacted him and he assured me my son will be fine. I got the herbal medication he recommended and my son used it and in one months time he was fully okay even up till this moment he is so full of life. fibromyalgia has a cure and it is a herbal cure contact the doctor for more info on drwilliams098675@gmail.com on how to get the medication. Thanks for reading my story

    ReplyDelete
  9. "With Dr Williams,herbal medicine I felt very empowered after i started his medication and the results came very quickly I might add. Contrary to what my doctor had recommended for my health, (that fibromyalgia have no permanent cure) I have succeeded in less than 4 weeks to treat all the symptoms associated with my fibromyalgia (including the abdomen, back and neck pain ) and within 4 weeks, i was completely cured from fibromyalgia . Thank you so much for this terrific publication. and also i have recently experienced a symptom-free of irritability and join stiffness, which was nothing short of remarkable, considering the awful state i was in before I was introduced to dr williams life changing medication,for more information on how to get his medicine you can email him in drwilliam098675@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  10. Searching for natural ways to get rid of my fibroids was not easy. I saw several advertisements of all kinds of treatments to shrink fibroids. I was a little skeptical but I was desperate to get rid of the fibroids so I tried one in particular which didn’t work. I was still having heavy painful bleeding with lots of clots. I noticed that the soreness in my breast was gone, but after going for another scan, I was told that my fibroids were still there. I was so discouraged that I scheduled an appointment with my doctor to discuss other possibilities for removing the fibroids. About two months later, while surfing on the internet I saw a post on Facebook talking about how to get rid of fibroid naturally without surgery with the help of (DR JIM Herbal Medicine). I was very skeptical about it. I didn’t even bother to contact the Dr Email that was written below the comment in the post. Two days later, as I sat alone in the sitting room feeling hopeless about my fibroid, I decided to go on Facebook and see if I can still access the post I saw two days earlier so i can get the Email and contact the Dr because i felt this is my only hope, thank God I was able to get it. I reluctantly gave the Dr Natural product a try and contacted him via Email ( drjimsolutioncenter@gmail.com ) …it just made sense after one week of using the herbal medicine it was like a miracle i could not hold my joy i immediately ran to the hopital for text and behold my Doctor said its no more. On September17 of 2016, so since then I began to share alot of problem like fibromyalgia with Dr JIM and promise to drop his Email: Drjimsolutioncenter@gmail.com and WhatsApp +2348100368288 so others can benefit from his herbal medicine.
    Good luck on your journey!

    ReplyDelete
  11. Searching for natural ways to get rid of my fibroids was not easy. I saw several advertisements of all kinds of treatments to shrink fibroids. I was a little skeptical but I was desperate to get rid of the fibroids so I tried one in particular which didn’t work. I was still having heavy painful bleeding with lots of clots. I noticed that the soreness in my breast was gone, but after going for another scan, I was told that my fibroids were still there. I was so discouraged that I scheduled an appointment with my doctor to discuss other possibilities for removing the fibroids. About two months later, while surfing on the internet I saw a post on Facebook talking about how to get rid of fibroid naturally without surgery with the help of (DR JIM Herbal Medicine). I was very skeptical about it. I didn’t even bother to contact the Dr Email that was written below the comment in the post. Two days later, as I sat alone in the sitting room feeling hopeless about my fibroid, I decided to go on Facebook and see if I can still access the post I saw two days earlier so i can get the Email and contact the Dr because i felt this is my only hope, thank God I was able to get it. I reluctantly gave the Dr Natural product a try and contacted him via Email ( drjimsolutioncenter@gmail.com ) …it just made sense after one week of using the herbal medicine it was like a miracle i could not hold my joy i immediately ran to the hopital for text and behold my Doctor said its no more. On September17 of 2016, so since then I began to share alot of problem like fibromyalgia with Dr JIM and promise to drop his Email: Drjimsolutioncenter@gmail.com and WhatsApp +2348100368288 so others can benefit from his herbal medicine.
    Good luck on your journey!

    ReplyDelete
  12. "DR WILLIAMS, I wish to praise you for sharing such a simple but comprehensive herbal medication to tackle this pain from the root. This is truly a valuable resource for all men and woman suffering from fibromyalgia. It's been almost 10 months since my doctor first diagnosed me with fibromyalgia. My doctor suggested that I will try watchful waiting but as the months went nothing has changed.

    As soon as I decided I'm going all the way and treat my fibromyalgia, I ordered Dr Williams and the results as you already know were shocking to say the least. The result I took clearly showed my fibromyalgia had completely vanished.

    I have even encouraged my "Doubting Thomas" friend to order it and read it too. To have so much good information in one tight package is an unbelievable value. I would encourage anyone who suffers from fibromyalgia and/or any joint stiffness issue to take advantage of Dr Williams herbal medicine! you can contact him through his email on drwilliams098675@gmail.com for more information

    Sincerely...

    ReplyDelete
  13. I think I've had fibromyalgia for many years but was diagnosed approximately 5 years ago. I was working at Walmart and was just exhausted. Not the tiredness that sleep helps. I mean totally exhausted, with muscle pain. My primary doctor diagnosed fibromyalgia. He prescribed Cymbalta around 4 years ago. Cymbalta was approved for Fibromyalgia treatment. Although it did relieve some of the pain, I still suffered from fatigue. November 2017 my doctor started me on Green House Herbal Clinic fibromyalgia Herbal mixture, 7 weeks into treatment I improved dramatically. At the end of the full treatment course, the disease is totally under control. No case of fatigue, muscle pain,mood swings, or nervousness. Visit Green House Herbal Clinic official website www. greenhouseherbalclinic .com. I am strong again and able to go about daily activities.‌ This Herbal Formula is Incredible!! My life is back.

    ReplyDelete
  14. ALL THANKS TO DR WILLIAMS FOR THE GREAT DEED HE HAVE DONE FOR MY DAUGHTER?
    My daughter suffered from fibromyalgia for more than 12 years which we started experiencing in her when she turned 8 year and 5 months we all thought it will end but got even worse as days went by. We tried all several treatments and therapy prescribed by various doctors we met but to no avail, she always complain of joint stiffness, and have difficulty falling asleep. She usually tells me she feeling tired. This were steady disorder that disrupted her entire life, even at night she slept less because of this.It was during a casual conversation with a friend that i learned about Dr Williams herbal medicine I was able to contact him on his email address. and give him all the necessary information that he needed,few day later he sent me the herbal portion and his medicine was able to restore her back to normal and she is very okay now without any side effects whatsoever. If you have fibromyalgia, do not hesitate to contact him on drwilliams098675@gmail.com for advice and for his product. I hope this also helps someone out there

    ReplyDelete
  15. Dr Williams,his medicine was extremely helpful to my daughter. I have had a daughter with fibromyalgia for 21 years now , and my doctor have prescribe me with different kinds of western drugs without no improvement in my daughter symptoms . I am so glad I have found Dr Williams medicine (as I was surfing the net for a solution and saw a recommendation for it on a women's health forum early this year). I have felt so empowered by the knowledge you have given me and I quickly self diagnosed the individual cause of my daughter fibromyalgia and armed with his clear instructions, I was finally able to beat this monster, in less than 4 weeks of using dr Williams medication on my daughter. she went for a checkup and it was clear that my daughter fibromyalgia were gone,you can also email him on drwilliams098675@gmail.com for help.

    Thank you, thank you , thank you. Dr Williams "

    ReplyDelete

  16. thanks to Dr ebhota, who cured me of fallopian tube blockage and fibroid.
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    ReplyDelete
  17. I have been trying to get pregnant for over 5 years now. My husband and I
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    ReplyDelete
  18. CURE TO FIBROMYALGIA WITHOUT ANY SIDE EFFECT: My husband was diagnosed with fibromyalgia . My husbad fibromyalgia was something i don't understand he cry so bad that he was usually in bed for about 8 hours and soreness killers (even prescription strength) don't stop the weakness of the joint, even if he take triple the dosage. my husband symptoms was really so terrible,that we have to make hospital our home, and all the doctors would do is monitor it, prescribe him countless of control pills and pain medication with no positive result. until recently I contacted a Doctor who put an end to this problem. If you are having same problem with fibromyalgia contact Dr. William for advice and possible solution without any side effect (drwilliams098675@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  19. Just wanted to say a huge thank you to Dr Williams for everything he have done in my life. I have been in tears for so many years now, having found that my husband is suffering from fibromyalgia, lesion after some years of being under extreme stress., . I spent 24 hours freaking out and finally calmed down after reading some testimony on here about Dr Williams herbal medicine to fibromyalgia . The moment came and I mumbled out to my husband about Dr Williams product (with a few tears) and he was AMAZE – . He was just worried about his health, been free from this disorder, that was how will order for Dr Williams product on line , after my husband finish taking Dr Williams medicine for just within a period of one month. Will went to the doc together who confirmed that he was fibromyalgia free.
    Thank you again for being upfront, truthful and taking this pain away from my family for more information about his product you can email him on drwilliams098675@gmail.com i hope you can also help other terrified people in a similar situation.

    ReplyDelete
  20. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  21. 9 YEARS FIBROMYALGIA CURED WITH HERBS: I am so happy sharing my mom's story of Fibromyalgia that almost ruined family of its happiness. It is known now that there is permanent cure to Fibromyalgia, to those still in doubt of this, my mom is a living Testimony. For 9yrs, my mom suffered from Fibromyalgia, many investigations have did took place to achieve a diagnosis, it came from nowhere. She is one of those millions of people around the world who suffered Fibromyalgia until God healed her completely with HIELAN Herbal Medications for fibro by Dr. Rodwen Thompson. the symptoms she was experiencing ranges from general tiredness lethargy to being properly depressed, isolated, feeling hopeless and miserable maybe because of the constant back pain that seem to get worse and worse on daily basis, pains down both arms, hips, legs, across her shoulders, right hand side of her back, left hand side of her neck, sometimes head as she said the pains were excruciating. She can never sleep at night when bad tingling all over her body cramps and temperature fluctuations, but do sleep a little at noon. Hospital became our second home until she finally received a definite diagnosed. I cry every day because I feel I was losing my mom. We search and search for help everywhere possible but none was forth coming. To cut the long story short, HIELAN brought us breakthrough. The Herbs proved very effective just after 3 months of use; today she is totally free from Fibro with no side effects. To know more about this product, visit: curetofibromyalgia.blogspot.com or you can write him directly via: dr.rodwenthompson@gmail.com. After she was cured, I realized that Our search for light begins when we get fed up with gross darkness.

    ReplyDelete
  22. MY NAME IS BILLIE LORA FROM USA.
    With Dr Williams herb i was completely free from fibromyagia.You are an amazing doctor.Matching diagnosises aside, I just want to be your friend. Lol You inspire me on a feminist level. On an intelligence level. you are a good man doing so much for mankind, level.Thank you for being you.For keeping a lot of us . For reminding us that we aren’t a fucking statistic or a status, we are still PEOPLE. With brains and personalities and jobs and lives. I’ve been diagnosed for so many years now with fibromyalgia, and the roller coaster of emotions is all too real.I’m sure I speak for everyone here when I say thank you. From the deepest part of my soul. THANK YOU.You give us all an indescribable level of comfort and absurdness in sharing our diagnoses and, almost a green light to continue to celebrate our lives,for you always been there.For every jerk who throws you hate, there are hundreds of us thanking the universe for you.for more information about Dr Williams product to fibromyalgia you can email him on drwillliams098675@gmail.com

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